Compulsory The damage in Christchurch was far more considerable than the damage triggered in the 7.1 earthquake only 5 months previously. Effects in Christchurch. Case study: Christchurch 2011 (HIC) Causes. However, the earthquake on 22 February 2011 caused about 30 million tonnes of ice to break off the Tasman Glacier, 200 km to the west. How did scientists find this information out? Although it was relatively powerful—6.3 magnitude—it was still weaker than … 7.1 Darfield Earthquake the Christchurch area experienced a series of earthquakes. These mass movements resulted in at least five fatalities, and many homes were damaged. - Definition & Types, Prentice Hall Earth Science: Online Textbook Help, Middle School Earth Science: Help and Review, Middle School Earth Science: Tutoring Solution, Glencoe Chemistry - Matter And Change: Online Textbook Help, Physical Science Curriculum Resource & Lesson Plans, ORELA General Science: Practice & Study Guide, ScienceFusion Matter and Energy: Online Textbook Help, CSET Science Subtest II Life Sciences (217): Practice & Study Guide, FTCE Physics 6-12 (032): Test Practice & Study Guide, ILTS Science - Chemistry (106): Test Practice and Study Guide, FTCE Earth & Space Science 6-12 (008): Test Practice & Study Guide, Praxis Earth & Space Sciences - Content Knowledge (5571): Practice & Study Guide, Biological and Biomedical We are also interested in determining whether time-varying stresses following the Dusky Sound earthquake could have altered the stress state in Canterbury in such a way … Photos of damaged buildings and roads in and around Christchurch. Between the September 2010 earthquake and mid-July 2012, the Canterbury region experienced: The vertical acceleration of the ground during the 22 February 2011 earthquake was the highest ever recorded in New Zealand and one of the highest in the world. Via BBC News, radar imagery detailing ground movement during the February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake.The map was produced from data captured by the Japanese Advanced Land Observing Satellite (Alos) before and after the quake. The 22nd February earthquake in Christchurch triggered extensive landslides and rockfalls in the Port Hills area to the east of the city. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake … At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. An earthquake near Christchurch in September 2010 started a chain of events still being felt over 2 years later. Early on 4 September 2010, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on an unrecorded fault near Darfield, 40 km west of Christchurch and just 10 km below the surface. - Definition and Components, What Are Cyclones? One result of this readjustment was a damaging aftershock (magnitude 6.3) on 22 February 2011, when a fault ruptured very close to Christchurch. It was a relatively shallow earthquake – about 10 kilometres below the surface of the Canterbury Plains. In the city centre ground accelerations were three to four times greater than those produced by the September 2010 earthquake. What is the history of earthquakes in Haiti? That calculation is energy/hectare. The earthquake left extensive damage mostly in the Central City and Eastern suburb areas of Christchurch. The earthquakes considered include the Mw 7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake (15 July, 2009), the Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake (4 September, 2010), and the Mw 6.2 Christchurch earthquake (22 February, 2011). In comparison, the magnitude 6.8 earthquake at Kobe, Japan, in January 1995 had a PGA of 0.8 g. The magnitude 9 earthquake near Tohoku, Japan, in March 2011 had a PGA of 2.7 g. The severe shaking of the September 2010 and February 2011 earthquakes caused some areas of underground, waterlogged silts to behave like liquid, in a process called liquefaction. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Which states are threatened by earthquakes? Peak ground acceleration (PGA) is a measure of movement compared to the acceleration of gravity, which is 1 g (9.8 m/s2). - Types, Causes & Effects, What are Natural Disasters? International agencies also came to the aid of Christchurch. Which state is the MOST "earthquake-prone,"... What is an Earthquake? Simulations of how much the ground will move during a major Alpine Fault earthquake forecast a much higher intensity of ground movement in places such as Canterbury, according to … How long was the fault? 185 people were killed in the February earth quake and thousands more were hurt. The earthquake produced the strongest earthquake ground-shaking ever recorded in New Zealand, with the ground near the epicentre moving up 1.25 times the acceleration due to gravity. Q. Photos of Christchurch Electrical Storm - Sept 2012 The unusually strong shaking might have been made worse by seismic lensing, with seismic waves being reflected off the hard basalt rocks of the Port Hills. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. 185 people were killed in the February earth quake and thousands more were injured. A case study of an earthquake in a HIC.. What caused the Christchurch earthquake? Q. EQRNet is a dense network of more than 150 ground-based accelerometers which allows the council to better manage its earthquake response using real-time information. Along 24 km of this fault, ground on either side shifted horizontally up to 5 m and vertically up to 1.3 m. The events around Canterbury are examples of common geological phenomena associated with earthquakes. Earthquake intensity map The peak ground acceleration (PGA) in central Christchurch exceeded 1.8 g (i.e. In Heathcote Valley it got up to 2.1 gravity. Scientists from many countries work with New Zealand researchers to study the Alpine Fault and the Canterbury earthquakes, and their information is shared around the world. New zealand and the christchurch earthquake 2 1. - Definition & Explanation, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. How much ground movement has there been? 22 On February 2011, a fault rupture centred beneath the Port Hills generated an Mw 6.2 earthquake – the Christchurch Earthquake. They are important to study because they are potential hazards to human life and property. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. Which plate boundary and movement commonly create... What is a sudden ground movement caused by sudden... An earthquake was measured to have a magnitude of... What was the impact of the 1964 Earthquake in... Are there any earthquakes on the Indo-Australian... A magnitude 7 earthquake suggests higher ground... Can an earthquake trigger a disease outbreak? All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Peak Ground Accelera-tions (PGA) in the area of Southeast Christchurch were much higher than the design level in the period range of New Zealand road and highway bridges, with exceptional values of A reason to why there was so much damage done was because that the land, infrastructure and roads were still either damaged or weak due to the 2010 Christchurch earthquake which had a magnitude of 7.1. many building which were made of stone and brick … Concerning the Greendale Fault that ruptured to produce the major component of the magnitude-7.1 September 2010 earthquake (there were at ... the Christchurch/ Selwyn ... ground … The earthquake was accompanied by a large surface rupture. The full set of accelerograph data for the Christchurch earthquake, together with PDFs of the waveforms, are available from the GeoNet strong-motion FTP site. At Fukushima, ground acceleration was .35 gravity. MetService meteorologist Dan Corbett described the event as a "one-in-10-year event or may be even rarer". Seconds later, the Greendale Fault just to the south ruptured. Electricity to 75 per cent of the city was cut in the September quake. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. The Mw 6.3 February 22, 2011 Christchurch earthquake was centred 10 km south east of central Christchurch on the edge of the city at a depth of 5 km. In the Christchurch CBD, the ground accelerations produced by the September magnitude 6.3 earthquake were 3-4 times greater than during the 7.1 earthquake; in … That’s four times as much of a shake as they’re designed for. Services, What is an Earthquake? Early on 4 September 2010, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on an unrecorded fault near Darfield, 40 km west of Christchurch and just 10 km below the surface. An interview on New Zealand TV with Canterbury University geologist Mark Quigley, who provides an eyewitness account of the earthquake as well as some tectonic background. Today's earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand is different. Underground infrastructure, such as water and sewage pipes, was also destroyed. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. It caused extensive damage to property, and aftershocks also caused injury and loss of life as well as lasting social upheaval. Thus, the main damage of the bridge is attributed to the first earthquake. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The Canterbury earthquakes did not dislodge enough rock underwater to cause any tsunamis off the South Island. Along 24 km of this fault, ground on either side shifted horizontally up to 5 m and vertically up to 1.3 m. Aftershocks were concentrated at the east end of the fault towards Christchurch as rock distorted by the original earthquake adjusted to new stresses. About 400 000 tonnes of silt pushed up through cracks in the ground and covered the surface, causing a huge clean-up problem. Measuring 6.3 on the Richter Scale and, at 4.99 km deep, the earthquake was very shallow. When did the Great Kanto Earthquake occur? Figure 2.3. Interference between waves amplified the ground acceleration in some places and reduced it in others. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. This meant the ground could no longer support the foundations of many buildings, causing them to subside. And that comes down to ground acceleration. Facts – ChristchurchEarthquake • When – 22nd Feb 2011 – 12.51pm • Magnitude – 6.3 • Centred – 10km South East of the city at a depth of 5km • (Believed to be an aftershock of initial quake on the 4th Sept 2010 which was a 7.1 Magnitude) There was a great deal of ground movement in the Christchurch earthquake, resulting in the damage of many buildings and the loss of 183 lives.... See full answer below. 1.8 times the acceleration of gravity), with the highest recording 2.2 g, at Heathcote Valley Primary School, a shaking intensity equivalent to MM X+. The damage in Christchurch was far more substantial than the damage caused in the 7.1 earthquake only 5 months before. Seconds later, the Greendale Fault just to the south ruptured. The MetService said there were 140 lightning strikes from "cloud to ground" within 150 kilometres of Cathedral Square. This is due to the deck restraining and increase of the pile bending resistance. In the CBD the Christchurch earthquake was 3 times more powerful and destructive than on land in Japan. Why was the Great Kanto Earthquake so powerful? Q. Note how the maximum values are clustered in Christchurch, close to the rupture, and fall away fairly quickly outside it. Shaking caused damaging landslides and rockfalls on steep slopes and cliffs, especially in Lyttelton, Sumner and Redcliffs. The Christchurch earthquake was a 6.3, and the real hard volcanic rock from the old volcano accelerated the movement, so we had more than two times the force of gravity shaking the city. There was a great deal of ground movement in the Christchurch earthquake, resulting in the damage of many buildings and the loss of 183 lives.... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Downtown, there’s lots of buildings that have yet to come down. Update: 5/9/10 More useful links: Christchurch CDB it was 1.1 gravity. The movement was almost entirely strike-slip. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. Create your account. The earthquake occurred on New Zealand’s South Island, 10km west of Christchurch, at 12.51pm on 22nd February 2011 and lasted just 10 seconds. New Zealand and the Christchurch Earthquake 2. The 2010 shallow event took place ~45 km west of Christchurch at 4:35 AM local time. Golf ball hail rained down on the people of Christchurch. Christchurch 22nd Feburary Earthquake. Christchurch Earthquake Case Study. On Tuesday 22nd of February 2011 there was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake at 12:51pm. The earthquake … A GNS scientist explains rockfalls and his research after the Christchurch earthquake. This fell into Tasman Lake and created waves up to 3.5 m high. In July 2018, the Smart Christchurch programme at Christchurch City Council initiated a three-year trial of EQRNet with local company Canterbury Seismic Instruments (CSI). answer! Some rocks shaken loose from high on the Port Hills bounced down hundreds of metres onto buildings below. Several buildings caught fire after the earthquake. ES AT1 2017 Case Study: Christchurch Earthquake Part A: Analysis of Event Analysis of the tectonic movement or process involved The Christchurch earthquake in 2011 was a result of a transform boundary. All rights reserved. Fault movement. Curious Minds is a Government initiative jointly led by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, the Ministry of Education and the Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor. In February most of the city was without power. During the strong shaking, the ground near the epicentre moved at up to 1.25 times the acceleration due to gravity. Earthquakes often occur in areas that sit above faults, which are cracks in the earth typically between the boundaries of tectonic plates. This paper details the ground fissuring and coincident spring formation that was observed in the Hillsborough Valley, Christchurch. Most households had power within two to three days, but some regions took much longer. Its magnitude was 6.3, and it was felt in many areas of the island. This contrasts with the shakemap for September, where intense shaking was felt across a much wider region.This shows that yesterday’s magnitude 6.3 quake released much less energy in total than September’s magnitude 7, but due to its … On Tuesday 22nd of February 2011 there was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake at 12:51 pm. The highest shaking was recorded at Heathcote Valley Primary School at 220%g, with readings of 188%g at Pages Road Pumping Station and 107%g at Hulverstone Drive Pumping Station. PGS reached about 30% g and intensities were in the order of VIII at the epicentre, in Christchurch only VI-VII. Q.When did this particular fault last move,and how can scientists decide this? However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. A GNS scientist explains P and S waves, especially in relation to the Christchurch earthquakes. This survey will open in a new tab and you can fill it out after your visit to the site. The Christchurch earthquake occurred in Christchurch, New Zealand on February 22, 2011. Read our article on liquefaction to find out more. This fault came to within a depth of 1 km but did not show at the surface. How much ground movement was there in the Christchurch earthquake? Shaking in the centre of Christchurch, which caused a lot of damage, was much stronger than in the 4 September 2010 earthquake, partly because it was much closer to the epicentre. In the February 2011 quake, the fault movement and structure of the bedrock produced exceptionally strong ground motion – up to 1.8 times the acceleration due to gravity in the eastern suburbs. The most severe shaking in the February earthquake only lasted a few seconds but in places reached a PGA of 2.2 g. This was unusually high, especially for an earthquake of ‘only’ magnitude 6.3. Damaged brick building on Victoria Street in Christchurch - Photo by Ian Chan The critical issue with this earthquake was that the epicentre was at shallow depth (5km) under Christchurch, so many people were within 10km to 20km of the fault rupture. The study of earthquakes is a global science because they have effects beyond individual countries. Q.What happened underground to cause the Christchurch earthquake? Transform boundaries are when two separate plates slide past each other in their movement. There’s some fairly significant ground movements on display here. 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