The crown hastily negotiated a truce of seven months with Alençon and promised Casimir's forces 500,000 livres to stay east of the Rhine,[67] but neither action secured a peace. At the Siege of Rouen (May–October 1562), the crown regained the city, but Antoine of Navarre died of his wounds. It thus fell upon the younger brother of the Duke of Guise, the Duke of Mayenne, to lead the Catholic League. 65–93. The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1629 (New Approaches to European History, #8) by Mack P. Holt The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1629 : CLICK HERE Format: paperback, 260 pages Publisher: Cambridge Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen, were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. Parma was subsequently wounded in the hand during the Siege of Caudebec whilst trapped by Henry's army. [71] The Duke arrived in the council chamber where his brother the Cardinal waited. The situation degenerated into open warfare even without the King having the necessary funds. The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise, and both sides received assistance from foreign sources. The French monarchy became weak after the death of King Henry II in 1559. It also contained criticisms against the clergy of their neglect that hampered growth of true faith. Meanwhile, the Queen Mother became increasingly fearful of the unchecked power wielded by Coligny and his supporters, especially as it became clear that Coligny was pursuing an alliance with England and the Dutch Protestant rebels. War could no longer be avoided and civil tolerance had failed. In February 1563, at the Siege of Orléans, Francis, Duke of Guise, was shot and killed by the Huguenot Jean de Poltrot de Méré. This, however, had been tried and had failed—witness the fact that the Huguenots were now more numerous than they had ever been before. In 1562, the Huguenots were defeated by Guise in the first battle of the war. [46] A group of Protestant nobles, led by the prince of Condé and proclaiming that they were liberating the king and regent from "evil" councillors, organised a kind of protectorate over the Protestant churches. French Wars of Religion – Dreux 19/12/1562 This was the first battle of the French Wars of Religion. Accordingly, the Estates-General pressured Henry III into conducting a war against the Huguenots. Seminole Wars 1814-1858 Anglo-Zulu War 1879 The Crimean War 1853-1856 The Plains Wars 1850s-1890s French Indian War 1754-1763 The Mahdist Revolt 1884 American Civil War 1861-1865 American War of Ind. The Meaux circle was joined by Vatable, a Hebraist,[7] and Guillaume Budé, the classicist and librarian to the king. There were many causes of the war, but the most important causes are the Reformation of the Protestants, the weakness of the French Monarchy, and the powerful rivalry of the Catholics and Protestants. [15] Calvinism, another form of Protestant religion, was soon introduced by John Calvin, a native of Noyon, Picardy,[16] who fled France in 1535 after the Affair of the Placards. A test of King Henry III's leadership occurred at the meeting of the Estates-General at Blois in December 1576. They attended the execution by burning at the stake of those caught for the Affair of the Placards, on 21 January 1535, in front of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris.[22]. Henry IV was faced with the task of rebuilding a shattered and impoverished kingdom and uniting it under a single authority. On his deathbed, Henry III called for Henry of Navarre, and begged him, in the name of statecraft, to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused. Henry's forces then went on to besiege Paris, but after a long and desperately fought resistance by the Parisians, Henry's siege was lifted by a Spanish army under the command of the Duke of Parma. Catherine de’ Medici has been held partly responsible for starting the French Wars of Religion. With that victory Henry's concerns then turned to the situation in Brittany where he promulgated the Edict of Nantes and sent Bellièvre and Brulart de Sillery to negotiate a peace with Spain. [76] The Edict can be said to mark the end of the Wars of Religion, though its apparent success was not assured at the time of its publication. Monarchy tried to intervene and reduce the tension between the warr… To make sure that no contender for the French throne was free to act against him, the King had the Duke's son imprisoned. The Wars of Religion, Part I Murder of Coligny and St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Click here for a map of the territorial divisions of France along religious and political lines. As he was killed outside of direct combat, the Guise considered this an assassination on the orders of the duke's enemy, Admiral Coligny. Political unrest between the Huguenots and the powerful Guise family led to the death of many Huguenots, marking the beginning of the Wars of Religion. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles. [13] Francis tried to steer a middle course in the developing religious schism in France. In response Henry said he would reopen hostilities with the Huguenots but wanted the Estates-General to vote him the funds to carry out the war. In early 1598, the king marched against Mercœur in person, and received his submission at Angers on 20 March 1598. [14] Despite this, in January 1535, Catholic authorities decided that those classified as "Lutherans" were actually Zwinglians (also heretical), followers of Huldrych Zwingli. [62] Over the next few weeks, the disorder spread to more than a dozen cities across France. In the first half of the 17th century, the German states, Scandinavia ( Sweden , primarily) and Poland were beset by religious warfare in the Thirty Years War . At the Battle of Jarnac (16 March 1569), the prince of Condé was killed, forcing Admiral de Coligny to take command of the Protestant forces, nominally on behalf of Condé's 15-year-old son, Henry, and the 16-year-old Henry of Navarre, who were presented by Jeanne d'Albret as the legitimate leaders of the Huguenot cause against royal authority. In this situation, Catholics were supported by the House of the Guise, while the House of Bourbons sympathized with the Protestants. It also involved a dynastic power struggle between powerful noble families in the line for succession to the French throne: the wealthy, ambitious, and fervently Catholic ducal House of Guise (a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine, who claimed descent from Charlemagne) and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France (i.e., commander in chief of the French armed forces) versus the less wealthy House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon), princes of the blood in the line of succession to the throne who were sympathetic to Calvinism. Much as Philip II hated and feared a possible Huguenot (French Protestant) victory in France, he was content to see the civil wars continue, anxious most often to intervene on the side of the Catholics yet sometimes covertly offering help to the Huguenots. On 23 December 1588, at the Château de Blois, Henry of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal de Guise, were lured into a trap by the King's guards. Coligny's body was thrown from the window into the street, and was subsequently mutilated, castrated, dragged through the mud, thrown in the river, suspended on a gallows, and burned by the Parisian crowd.[60]. [26] But by the middle of the century, the adherents to Protestantism in France had increased markedly in number and power, as the nobility in particular converted to Calvinism. In the 1550s, the establishment of the Geneva church provided leadership to the disorganized French Calvinist (Huguenot) church. In 1661 Louis XIV, who was particularly hostile to the Huguenots, started assuming control of his government and began to disregard some of the provisions of the Edict. Related PostsSecond French War of ReligionThe French Wars of Religion were a series of nine wars that lasted over 35 years. Proclaiming his son "prince and duke of Brittany", he allied with Philip II of Spain, who sought to place his own daughter, infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia, on the throne of Brittany. Henry and his advisor, the Duke of Sully saw that the essential first step in this was negotiation of the Edict of Nantes, which to promote civil unity granted the Huguenots substantial rights—but rather than being a sign of genuine toleration, was in fact a kind of grudging truce between the religions, with guarantees for both sides. Catherine, however, later hardened her stance and, at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises. Under the 1629 Peace of La Rochelle, the brevets of the Edict (sections of the treaty that dealt with military and pastoral clauses and were renewable by letters patent) were entirely withdrawn, though Protestants retained their prewar religious freedoms. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. [41] Catherine chose the third course to pursue. The following year, mobs carried out iconoclasm in more than 20 cities and towns; Catholic urban groups attacked Protestants in bloody reprisals in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities. [38] Although she was a sincere Roman Catholic, she nominated a moderate chancellor, Michel de l'Hôpital, who urged a number of measures providing for civic peace so that a religious resolution could be sought by a sacred council. Finally, in October 1685, Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which formally revoked the Edict and made the practice of Protestantism illegal in France. [14] The Affair of the Placards began in 1534, and started with protesters putting up anti-Catholic posters. Over the remainder of Louis XIII's reign, and especially during the minority of Louis XIV, the implementation of the Edict varied year by year. The Huguenots gathered a formidable army under the command of Condé, aided by forces from south-east France, led by Paul de Mouvans, and a contingent of fellow Protestant militias from Germany — including 14,000 mercenary reiters led by the Calvinist Duke of Zweibrücken. Viewing the House of Guise as a dangerous threat to the power of the Crown, Henry III decided to strike first. For other French civil wars, see, Corruption of the established religious system, The "Amboise conspiracy," or "Tumult of Amboise", Colloquy of Poissy and the Edict of Saint-Germain, The "Armed Peace" (1563–1567) and the "second" war (1567–1568), St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and after (1572–1573), Death of Charles IX and the "fifth" war (1574–1576), The Catholic League and the "sixth" war (1576–1577), The "seventh" war (1579–1580) and the death of Anjou (1584), The Estates-General of Blois and assassination of Henry of Guise (1588), Henry IV's "Conquest of the Kingdom" (1589–1593), Resolution of the War in Brittany (1598–1599). Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. Another war followed, which concluded with the Siege of La Rochelle, in which royal forces led by Cardinal Richelieu blockaded the city for fourteen months. [47] As conflicts continued and open hostilities broke out, the Crown revoked the Edict under pressure from the Guise faction. [41] Thirdly, Catherine might try to heal the religious division in the country by means of a national council or colloquy on the topic. The damage done to the Huguenots meant a decline from 10% to 8% of the French population. During this time, Jeanne d'Albret met and held talks with Catherine at Mâcon and Nérac. Back to top 9.2 Based on the terms of the treaty, all Huguenots were granted amnesty for their past actions and the freedom of belief. [11] Criticisms from the population played a part in spreading anticlerical sentiments, such as the publication of the Heptameron by Marguerite, a collection of stories that depicted immorality among the clergy. Along with French Wars of Religion and Huguenot Wars, the wars have also been variously described as the "Eight Wars of Religion", or simply the "Wars of Religion" (only within France). The wars of the ancient world were rarely, if ever, based on religion. She died there on 9 June 1572, and for centuries after her death, Huguenot writers accused Catherine de' Medici of poisoning her. [54] The Catholics were commanded by the Duke d'Anjou—later King Henry III—and assisted by troops from Spain, the Papal States, and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.[56]. Henry secretly left Poland and returned via Venice to France, where he faced the defection of Montmorency-Damville, ex-commander in the Midi (November 1574). In the wake of the posters, the French monarchy took a harder stand against the protesters. The major engagements of the war occurred at Rouen, Dreux, and Orléans. Although the Huguenots had begun to mobilise for war before Vassy,[49] Condé used the massacre of Vassy as evidence that the July Edict of 1561 had been broken, lending further weight to his campaign. The House of Guise had long been identified with the defense of the Roman Catholic Church and the Duke of Guise and his relations â€“ the Duke of Mayenne, Duke of Aumale, Duke of Elboeuf, Duke of Mercœur, and the Duke of Lorraine â€“ controlled extensive territories that were loyal to the League. The exact number of wars and their respective dates are subject to continued debate by historians: some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, while the ensuing resurgence of rebellious activity leads some to believe the Peace of Alès in 1629 is the actual conclusion. Mercœur's daughter and heiress was married to the Duke of Vendôme, an illegitimate son of Henry IV. At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France. By April, the crown was already seeking to negotiate,[66] and the escape of Alençon from court in September prompted the possibility of an overwhelming coalition of forces against the crown, as John Casimir of the Palatinate invaded Champagne. In reaction to the Peace, Catholic confraternities and leagues sprang up across the country in defiance of the law throughout the summer of 1568. [74] Evidently Henry's conversion worried Protestant nobles, many of whom had, until then, hoped to win not just concessions but a complete reformation of the French Church, and their acceptance of Henry was by no means a foregone conclusion. [69] At the meeting of the Estates-General, there was only one Huguenot delegate present among all of the three estates;[69] the rest of the delegates were Catholics with the Catholic League heavily represented. While historians have suggested Charles de Louvier, sieur de Maurevert, as the likely assailant, historians have never determined the source of the order to kill Coligny (it is improbable that the order came from Catherine).[59]. [43] However, despite this measure, by the end of the Colloquy in Poissy in October 1561, it was clear that the divide between Catholic and Protestant ideas was already too wide.[44]. Others reconverted to Catholicism for survival, and the remainder concentrated in a small number of cities where they formed a majority. Also, he hoped to reconquer large parts of northern France from the Franco-Spanish Catholic forces. The wars will cease with the Edict of Nantes (30 th of April 1598), an edict that established a limited civil tolerance. Until…. The French wars on religion was a time period of several civil wars between the French Catholics and the Protestants. By the Peace of Montpellier in 1622, the fortified Protestant towns were reduced to two: La Rochelle and Montauban. [78] In 1681, he instituted the policy of dragonnades, to intimidate Huguenot families to convert to Roman Catholicism or emigrate. Neither group sought toleration of Protestants, but wanted to reach some form of concord for the basis of a new unity. He and his troops controlled most of rural Normandy. While the Guise faction had the unwavering support of the Spanish Crown, the Huguenots had the advantage of a strong power base in the southwest; they were also discreetly supported by foreign Protestant governments, but in practice, England or the German states could provide few troops in the ensuing conflict. Mercœur subsequently went to exile in Hungary. Updates? Corrections? Then, what had happened at Paris was repeated at Rouen (November 1591 â€“ March 1592). There guardsmen seized the duke and stabbed him in the heart, while others arrested the Cardinal who later died on the pikes of his escort. Francis II of France, at this point only 15 years old, was weak and lacked the qualities that allowed his predecessors to impose their will on the leading noblemen at court. Meanwhile, the regional situation disintegrated into disorder as both Catholics and Protestants armed themselves in 'self defence'. On 27 June 1551, Henry II issued the Edict of Châteaubriant, which sharply curtailed Protestant rights to worship, assemble, or even to discuss religion at work, in the fields, or over a meal. A peace compromise in 1576 allowed the Huguenots freedom of worship. Catholic Commands Montmorency LH Infantry St Andre Guise 3 Gendarmes 1 … Wars of Religion & the Edict of Nantes: 1588 - 1598 Henri de Guise was assassinated in 1588 and Henry III in 1589. In 1560, Jeanne d'Albret, Queen regnant of Navarre, converted to Calvinism, possibly due to the influence of Theodore de Beze. Discussion and written works circulated in Paris unimpeded for more than a year.[when?] Philip Benedict, ‘Un roi, une loi, deux fois: Parameters for the History of Catholic–Protestant Co-existence in France, 1555–1685’, in O. Grell & B. Scribner (eds), Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (1996), pp. The massacre provoked horror and outrage among Protestants throughout Europe, but both Philip II of Spain and Pope Gregory XIII, following the official version that a Huguenot coup had been thwarted, celebrated the outcome. The Duke was told that the King wished to see him in the private room adjoining the royal chambers. By the end of 1594, certain League members still worked against Henry across the country, but all relied on Spain's support. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenot s, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. Some powerful noble families, who were ambitious, wanted to take advantage of this situation to gain more power. The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. [57] The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[58] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), negotiated by Jeanne d'Albret, which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. [41] Secondly, Catherine could win over the Huguenots. [36] Inexperienced and faced with the legacy of debt from the Habsburg–Valois conflict, Catherine felt that she had to steer the throne carefully between the powerful and conflicting interests that surrounded it, embodied by the powerful aristocrats who led essentially private armies. In the early morning of 24 August, they killed Coligny in his lodgings with several of his men. See l'Hôpital speech to the Estates General at Orléans of 1560. The Meaux Circle was formed by a group of humanists including Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples and Guillaume Briçonnet, bishop of Meaux, in the effort to reform preaching and religious life. In 16th-century France, there was a succession of wars between Roman Catholics and Protestants (Hugenots primarily), known as the French Wars of Religion. With the murder, Henry of Navarre was legally entitled to the throne, and continued to fight against the Holy League. King Henry III at first tried to co-opt the head of the Catholic League and steer it towards a negotiated settlement. Many Huguenots emigrated to Protestant countries. The end of hostilities was brought on by the election (11–15 May 1573) of the Duke of Anjou to the throne of Poland and by the Edict of Boulogne (signed in July 1573), which severely curtailed many of the rights previously granted to French Protestants. Religion and the Cause of War 1767 Words | 8 Pages Many times we can’t pin down the precise reason as to why wars are caused, but we can say as to why we choose to fight. The wars of religion threatened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Catherine's three sons and the last Valois kings: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history (surpassed only by the Thirty Years' War, which took eight million lives).[1]. Protesters attacked and massacred Catholic laymen and clergy the following day in Nîmes, in what became known as the Michelade. French Wars of Religion One of the most unexpected riches of the Gordon Collection is its stock of beautifully bound and preserved pamphlets, polemical writings, royal and parliamentary edicts from the French Wars of Religion (1562-98) or “nos grans troubles & controversités,” as contemporaries often referred to them. Although Francis firmly opposed Lutheranism as being heresy, the initial difficulty was in recognizing precisely what was heretical and what was not. This assassination began the series of events known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. The Wars of Religion in France lasted between 1562 and 1598. In one correspondence, he reported that 600 copies of such works were being shipped to France and Spain and were sold in Paris.[6]. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The wars ended with Henry’s embrace of Roman Catholicism and the religious toleration of the Huguenots guaranteed by the Edict of Nantes (1598). John Calvin, a Frenchman, escaped from the persecution to Basle, Switzerland, where he published the Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. The conversion of the nobility constituted a substantial threat to the monarchy. [55] Much of the Huguenots' financing came from Queen Elizabeth of England, who was likely influenced in the matter by Sir Francis Walsingham. It allowed them to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside them. A treaty was negotiated by Catherine de Medici that allowed Huguenot nobles to worship freely, but peasants could only worship in one town wit… The edict of Nantes was revoked later in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau by Louis XIV of France. Thus, a national council of clergy gathered on the banks of the Seine River in the town of Poissy in July 1561. 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